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Full text of "Mathematical And Physical Papers - Iii"

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by a flash of gunpowder.    The tint in this case appeared to be the same as that seen by daylight.
198.    While engaged in some of these experiments on bright flames, I was surprised by discovering the strong effect produced by the flame of a spirit-lamp, the illuminating power of which is so feeble.    When this flame was held close to a bottle containing sulphate   of   quinine,  a  very distinct  dispersive   reflexion  was exhibited.    The same was the case with several other sensitive solutions.    However, the full effect of the flame is not thus exhibited, because a considerable portion of the rays which it emits is stopped by glass.    It is best observed by pouring the solution into an open vessel, such as a wine-glass or tumbler, holding the flame immediately over it, and placing the eye in or very little below the plane of the surface.    In this way nothing is interposed between the flame and the fluid, except an inch or two of air, the absorption produced by which, it is presumed, is insensible; and the plane strata, parallel to the surface, into which the illuminated portion of the fluid may be conceived to be divided, are all projected into lines, whereby the intensity of the blue light is materially increased.    It is to be observed further, that if the eye be held a little below the plane of the surface, there enters it, not only the light coining directly from the blue stratum itself, but also that coining from its image formed by total internal reflexion. This mode of observation has already been employed by Sir John Horscliel in  the case of sunlight.    As it is frequently useful in these researches it will be convenient to have a name for it, and I shall accordingly speak of it as the method of observing by superficial projection.
199.    The opacity of a solution of sulphate of quinine appears to increase regularly and rapidly with the refrangibility of the light.    Hence we may form an estimate of the refrangibility of any light by which the solution may be affected, by observing the  degree   in  which   the  illumination  is  concentrated in  the neighbourhood of the surface.    For this purpose it is essential to employ a weak solution, since otherwise streams of invisible light of various degrees of refrangibility produce each their full effect in strata so very narrow, that they cannot be distinguished by the breadth of the stratum.    Now to judge by the great concentration of the illumination produced by a spirit-lamp, even in